We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日
He is a retired worker. 他是位退休的工人
分词后置 (i分词词组；ii 个别分词如given, left； iii 修饰不定代词 something等)
There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里
This is the question given. 这是所给的问题
There is nothing interesting. 没有有趣的东西
Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.
Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.
1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
A. have written B. to be written C. being written D. written
答案D. 书与写作是被动关系，应用过去分词做定语表被动，相当于定语从句 which is written
2）What‘s the language ____ in Germany?
A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak
spoken是动词speak的过去分词形式，在句中作定语，修饰主语language, spoken 与 language有被动关系。该句可以理解为：
What’s the language (which is) spoken in German?
As I didn‘t receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.
-> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.
If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.
-> Given more attention，the trees could have grown better.
1）_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.
A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed
答案B. Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外，还有动作正在进行之意。 followed by（被…跟随）。本题可改为： With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.
2）There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light.
A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed
3）_______, liquids can be changed into gases.
A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat
答案C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动，正在进行的；过去分词表被动的，已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者，是被动的，因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated，…
(Being ) used for a long time, the book looks old.
Using the book, I find it useful.
有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚，可在分词前加连词。 连词有： when，while，if though，after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个，如：
While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building.
waiting 和saw 的主语相同。
I found my car missing. 我发现我的车不见了。
I’ll have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。