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 天才英语学习网 > 英语学习方法 > 英语语法讲解 > 正文

英语语法学习-情态动词

谈谈情态动词(Modal Verbs)(一)

我们常见的英文动词有:及物动词(Transtive Verbs)、不及物动词(Intranstive
Verbs)、助动词(Axiliary Verbs)、联系动词(Link Verbs /Copula)和情态动词(Modal
Verbs)。其他还有:非谓语动词,如:动词不定式、动名词。

这回我们就来谈谈情态动词(Modal Verbs 注意Modal 不是 Model 喔)。
* 情态动词也可称为"情态助动词 (Modal Auxiliaries)",因为它和基本助动词(be,
do, have)都属于助动词类。
* 情态动词和其他动词连用,可表示说话人的语气。
* 情态动词可表达建议、要求、可能和意愿等。
* 情态动词没有人称和数的变化。
* 常用的情态动词有:can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would
这九大情态动词;其他的还有ought to, need, dare 等。

其实我们这里谈的情态动词,它的特征用法,有许多方面和助动词是一样的(请参阅
《英文语法拉杂谈》助动词);但为了方便阅读,因此即使相同的部份,这里也同样列
出。

一、情态动词的变化:(情态动词could,动词 to work)

1.1 简单型(Simple):表示现在或将来的状态

 I could work (动词不可加 to ,如:to work。下同)
 you could work
 he could work
 she could work
 it could work
 we could work
 they could work

1.2 完成式型 (Perfect):表示过去的状态

 I could have worked (动词是 have + v-ed 过去分词。下同)
 you could have worked
 he could have worked
 she could have worked
 it could have worked
 we could have worked
 they could have worked

1.3 进行式型 (Continuous):表示现在或将来还在进行的状态

 I could be working (动词是be + v-ing 现在分词。下同)
 you could be working
 he could be working
 she could be working
 it could be working
 we could be working
 they could be working

1.4 完成进行式型 (Perfect Continuous):表示过去正在进行的状态

 I could have been working (动词是 have been + v-ing 现在分词。下同)
 you could have been working
 he could have been working
 she could have been working
 it could have been working
 we could have been working
 they could have been working

二、情态动词的疑问句:

只要将情态动词移到主语(Subject)的前面,句尾加上问号。这样就成了疑问句。

1. She can work.(主语she, 情态动词 can,动词 work)
  Can she work ? (这就是疑问句)

2. He would be working. (主语he, 情态动词 would,动词 be working)
  Would he be working ?

3. They should have worked. (主语they, 情态动词should, 动词have worked)
  Should they have worked ?

4. I could have been working. (主语 I, 情态动词 could, 动词 have been
working)
  Could I have been working ?

三、情态动词的否定句:

在情态动词的后面加上 not 就成了情太动词否定句。

1. She can work.
  She cannot work. (注意:can 和 not 须连在一起)(这就是否定句)

2. He would be working.
  He would not be working. (would not)

3. They should have worked.
   They should not have worked. (should not)

4. I could have been working.
   I could not have been working. (could not)

四、在口语中,否定情态动词的缩写法:

1. cannot ---- can't
2. could not ---- couldn't
3. might not ---- mightn't (很少用)
4. must not ---- mustn't
5. shall not ---- shan't (几乎没人用了)
6. should not ---- shouldn't
7. will not ---- won't (可不是 win't 喔!)
8. would not ---- wouldn't

五、情态动词的否定疑问句:

将否定情态动词移到主语的前面,就成了否定疑问句。

1. Can she not work ? 或 Can't she work ? (看出有什么不同吗?小心看看喔)

2. Would he not be working ? 或 Wouldn't he be working ?

3. Should they not have worked ? 或 Shouldn't they have worked ?

4. Could I not have been working ? 或 Couldn't I have been working ?

六、情态动词的反问句:

看看下面的例子就明白啦,呵呵。

1. She can work. 反问句:She can work, can't she ?

2. He would be working. 反问句:He would be working, wouldn't he ?

3. They should have worked. 反问句:They should have worked, shouldn't
they ?

4. I could have been working. 反问句:I could have been working, couldn't
I ?


就谈这些了,但我们还未进入正题哩,哎呀呀……

谈谈情态动词(Modal Verbs)(二)

上回在谈到情态动词的变化中,只举了以情态动词 could 为例子的变化。其他的情态
动词(would, should, might...)都可依此类推。

七、九大情态动词的时态关系:

1.  现在式 can -- 过去式 could
2.  现在式 may -- 过去式 might
3.  现在式 shall -- 过去式 should
4.  现在式 will -- 过去式 would
5.  现在式 must -- 过去式 must (其实must 和 ought 都是没有时态的)

八、情态动词的用法:表示"可能"或"预测"
  (Can,Could,Will,Would,Shall,Should,Must,Ought to)

8.1  can 和 could 用于表示"可能"或"预测":

1. He can't be at home. (否定句)
  他不可能在家。

2. Can the news be true ? (将情态动词 can 置于主语 the news 前就成疑问句)
  这消息可能是真的吗?

3. Anybo

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